Resembling a cosmic #fire opal, this supernova remnant is what remains after the supernova explosion of a white dwarf #star in Dorado. SNR 0534-69.9 is located about 160,000 light years from #Earth in a nearby region of #space known as the Large Magellanic Cloud. Want this #pic as a new background for your phone or tablet? http://chandra.harvard.edu/instagram/wallpaper/
Right #now Chandra is studying a duo of supermassive black holes in NGC 3393! Separated by less than 500 light years, this #BlackHole pairing is likely the product of a merger of 2 galaxies of unequal mass over a billion years ago! #Today's Observation from #Space: 22 hours 13 minutes Learn more about NGC 3393: http://chandra.harvard.edu/instagram/
🌀 Right #now Chandra is gazing at a group of galaxies in Draco! Nearby in the sky swirls this dwarf spiral galaxy, NGC 6503. Located on the edge of a region of #space called the Local Void, the galaxy is roughly 30,000 light years across — about 1/3 of the size of our Milky Way! #Today's Observation: 11 hours 6 minutes
Some see a great white #shark, its mouth wide open ready to ambush its prey from the dark depths of #space! Others just see a boring, old rose. Happy #SharkWeek! More about the Rosette Nebula: http://chandra.harvard.edu/instagram/ Want this #pic as a new background for your phone or tablet? http://chandra.harvard.edu/instagram/wallpaper/
Right #now Chandra is studying a pulsar in Puppis! Nearby in the sky is NGC 2440, a planetary nebula containing one of the hottest white dwarf stars known! This nebula glows as a result of fluorescence caused by ultraviolet radiation from the blazing star. #Today's Observation from #Space: 9 hours 10 minutes
A burst of #star formation lasting at least 200 million years is likely responsible for the gigantic reservoir of hot gas surrounding these two merging galaxies! Spanning about 300,000 light years in #space, the gas radiates at more than 7 million degrees and contains the mass of about 10 billion Suns! Want this #hot #pic as a new background for your phone or tablet? http://chandra.harvard.edu/instagram/wallpaper/ Want to know more? http://chandra.harvard.edu/instagram/
Right #now Chandra is studying a #star in Cygnus! Nearby in the sky is Veil Nebula, all that remains of what was once a star about 20 times more massive than our #Sun! This close-up image shows a small section of the nebula roughly 2 light years across where red is hydrogen, green is sulfur, and blue is oxygen. #Today's Observation from #Space: 9 hours 43 minutes
Jets generated by supermassive #BlackHoles at the centers of galaxies can transport huge amounts of energy across great distances! Giant plumes of radiation spanning roughly 400,000 light years are seen here in X-ray & radio light blasting outward from galaxy 3C353! Want this #space #pic as a new background for your phone or tablet? http://chandra.harvard.edu/instagram/wallpaper/
Right #now Chandra is studying a quasar in Canes Venatici! Nearby in the sky is M63, also known as the #Sunflower Galaxy. A spiral #galaxy similar in size to our own Milky Way, this celestial blossom contains over 400 billion #stars! #Today's Observation: 5 hours See more #space #pics at: http://chandra.si.edu/
🎉 #ICYMI: Chandra is celebrating 20 years in #space this week with six magnificent new images of the cosmos! See all of the images & share them with complete strangers #today on #TalkInAnElevatorDay! #Chandra20 Want any of these #hot #pics as a #new background for your phone or tablet? http://chandra.harvard.edu/instagram/wallpaper/ More: https://s.si.edu/Chandra20
#News: @NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory commemorates its 20th anniversary with a collection of new #images! From colliding galaxy clusters, to supernova remnants, to the center of our Milky Way, these images celebrate Chandra's landmark achievement & its promising future of discovery! #Chandra20 Want to see more? https://s.si.edu/Chandra20 #space #science #pics
Next week we'll be celebrating Chandra's 20th anniversary! See some of the best images from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and #vote for your favorite at https://bit.ly/2SmDaU2 #Space #pics #Chandra20
The #Snake Nebula is known as a dark nebula. Dark nebulae are clouds of gas & dust so dense that they block out much of the light behind them, leaving shadowy silhouettes in the foreground. Slithering across the sky about 650 light years from Earth, this #serpent is roughly 5 light years across! #WorldSnakeDay #Space
Right #now Chandra is studying #Jupiter's X-ray auroras! Unlike Earth's northern & southern auroras, Jupiter's auroras appear to behave independently of each other. Combining data from Chandra, NASA's Juno mission, & ESA's XMM-Newton observatory could help explain why! Want to know more about Jupiter's auroras? http://chandra.harvard.edu/instagram/ #Today's observation of Jupiter by Chandra in #space: 6 hours and 56 minutes
NGC 281 is located about 9,200 light years from Earth and almost 1,000 light years above the plane of our galaxy, giving us a nearly unfettered view of the #star formation within. A composite of X-ray & infrared light, this image is over 45 light years across! Want this #space #pic as a new background for your phone or tablet? http://chandra.harvard.edu/instagram/wallpaper/ Want to know more? http://chandra.harvard.edu/instagram/
M33 is the smallest spiral galaxy in the Local Group of galaxies which also includes the Milky Way and Andromeda. Located about 3 million light years away from Earth in #space, M33 is roughly 60,000 light years across. Chandra data shown in pink reveal a diverse range of objects including neutron stars, black holes, and supernova remnants! Want this as a new background #pic for your phone or tablet? http://chandra.harvard.edu/instagram/wallpaper/
✨ Right #now Chandra is studying a #BlackHole in Ursa Major! Nearby in the sky is this galaxy, M81. About 11.6 million light years from Earth, M81 contains a supermassive black hole roughly 15 times the mass of the supermassive black hole in the center of our Milky Way! Want to know more? http://chandra.harvard.edu/instagram/ #Today's Observation: 16 hours 40 minutes
When a #star exploded in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy to the Milky Way, it left behind this expanding shell of debris called SNR 0519-69.0. The supernova remnant is roughly 160,000 light years from Earth in the southern constellation of Dorado, the dolphinfish. The first image in this post is more than 68 light years across! Want this #pic as a new background for your phone or tablet? http://chandra.harvard.edu/instagram/wallpaper/
Right #now Chandra is studying an object in #Sagittarius. Nearby in the sky is the Lagoon Nebula, a rowdy nursery full of star birth & destruction! This image shows a section of the nebula about 4 light years across that features a beast of a young star called Herschel 36. The star is roughly 200,000 times brighter than our #Sun! #Today's #Space Observation: 6 hours 56 minutes
This supernova remnant was produced by a massive #star that exploded 💥 in a nearby galaxy called the Small Magellanic Cloud. X-ray observations from Chandra have helped scientists confirm that most of the oxygen in the Universe is synthesized in massive stars. ✨ The amount of oxygen in the E0102 ring shown here is enough for thousands of solar systems! 📱Want this as a new background #pic for your phone or tablet? http://chandra.harvard.edu/instagram/wallpaper/ #Space #Science!
Dazzling #pyrotechnics on a galactic scale! About 23 million light years away, this #fireworks display includes intense shock waves, an "extra" pair of spiral arms, and a huge #BlackHole 30 million times the mass of our Sun! Happy #4thofJuly! #IndependenceDay Want this as a new background for your phone or tablet? http://chandra.harvard.edu/instagram/wallpaper/ More about M106: http://chandra.harvard.edu/instagram/
The Red #Spider Nebula contains one of the hottest stars known — a white dwarf with a surface temperature over 50 times that of our Sun! Located toward the center of our galaxy roughly 3,000 light years from Earth, this #space arachnid isn't very #FarFromHome. 🕷
For the first time, astronomers have found two giant clusters of galaxies that are just about to collide, as reported in a new press release by RIKEN. This observation is important in understanding the formation of structure in the Universe, since large-scale structures—such as galaxies and clusters of galaxies—are thought to grow by collisions and mergers. The composite image above shows the separate galaxy clusters 1E2215 and 1E2216, located about 1.2 billion light years from Earth, captured as they enter a critical phase of merging. Chandra’s X-ray data (blue) have been combined with a radio image from the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope in India (red). These images were then overlaid on an optical image from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey that shows galaxies and stars in the field of view. The discovery of 1E2215 and 1E2216 at this stage of merging has enabled astronomers to test their computer simulations of these important collisions. This new result provides evidence of a shock wave that is generated early in the merging process and travels out away from the collision in a perpendicular direction. X-ray: NASA/CXC/RIKEN/L. Gu et al; Radio: NCRA/TIFR/GMRT; Optical: SDSS More at chandra.si.edu #astrophysics #space #nasa #chandra #xray #universe #mergers #news #galaxyclusters #spaceisawesome
🌀Over 60,000 light years across, the Whirlpool Galaxy is a captivating spiral galaxy located about 27 million light years from Earth. Drifting through #space behind the Whirlpool Galaxy for hundreds of millions of years, smaller galaxy NGC 5195 will likely one day be consumed by its larger companion. Want this #pic as a new background for your phone or tablet? http://chandra.harvard.edu/instagram/wallpaper/
Feel like you're living in a #bubble? You are! Superbubbles are huge cavities made by supernova shock waves & stellar winds in areas of newly-formed, massive stars! Our solar system is inside an old one called the Local Bubble, also known as the Local Fluff! ✨These Images: Superbubble DEM L50, located about 160,000 light years from Earth in #space! More on DEM L50: http://chandra.harvard.edu/instagram/
#News: Does the gas in galaxy clusters flow like milk or honey? 🥛🍯 Scientists dived deep into the Coma Cluster with @NASA's Chandra to answer that very question, expanding our understanding of the largest structures in the Universe held together by gravity! This image represents a deep dataset of the Coma galaxy cluster obtained by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. Researchers have used these data to study how the hot gas in the cluster behaves, as reported in our press release. One intriguing and important aspect to study is how much viscosity, or "stickiness," the hot gas demonstrates in these cosmic giants. Galaxy clusters are comprised of individual galaxies, hot gas, and dark matter. The hot gas in Coma glows in X-ray light observed by Chandra. Seen as the purple and pink colors in this new composite image, the hot gas contains about six times more mass than all of the combined galaxies in the cluster. The galaxies appear as white in the optical part of the composite image from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. (The unusual shape of the X-ray emission in the lower right is caused by the edges of the Chandra detectors being visible.) (Continued in the comments…)
Right #now Chandra is gazing at a #galaxy in the Boötes constellation! Nearby in the sky is a pair of interacting galaxies, collectively known as VV 705. About halfway through the process of merging into a single galaxy, the galactic cores are separated by roughly 16,000 light years of #space! #Today's Observation: 15 hours 33 minutes
2.2 billion light years from #Earth, one of the most massive clusters of merging galaxies known acts as a gravitational lens! The distortion & magnification of #light from objects behind the cluster allows us to explore incredibly distant regions of #space! Look at all of the #galaxies in these #pics! #WOW Want this as a new background for your phone or tablet? http://chandra.harvard.edu/instagram/wallpaper/ Want to know more? http://chandra.harvard.edu/instagram/
Right #now Chandra is observing a neutron star in Corona Australis, the Southern Crown! Nearby in the sky is star-forming region NGC 6729. Infant #stars hidden in dust are ejecting material that's slamming into the surrounding neighborhood at speeds of up to 620,000 miles per hour! This image was taken by ESO's Very Large Telescope and shows the scene in the light of glowing hydrogen (orange) & ionized sulfur (blue). #Today's Observation: 23 hours 53 minutes #Space!
Right #now Chandra is gazing at a galaxy cluster in Eridanus, the river constellation! Nearby in the sky is the large spiral galaxy NGC 1232. Roughly twice the size of our Milky Way galaxy, it shines with the light of billions of #stars! #Today's Observation: 9 hours 10 minutes
X-rays can tell us a lot about objects in #space — so can a lack of X-rays! By studying various wavelengths of light, scientists found a very quiet #BlackHole a few times our Sun's mass roughly 7,200 light years from Earth! It's possible that millions to billions of black holes may exist within our Milky Way galaxy! ⚫ Want to know more? http://chandra.harvard.edu/instagram/
Right #now Chandra is studying #BlackHoles in Ophiuchus! Nearby in the sky is the bipolar Twin Jet nebula. Bipolar planetary nebulae contain not one, but two stars in their centers. The shape of the jets is likely caused by the motion of the two central stars around each other. The pair of jets seen here is streaming out into #space at over 1 million kilometers per hour! #Today's Observation: 20h 50m
Galaxy Mrk 573 appears to have 2 cones of emission streaming away from the supermassive #BlackHole at its center. Evidence suggests that a torus — a ring of cool gas and dust — may block our view of some of the radiation produced by matter swirling around the black hole depending on how the torus is oriented toward Earth!
Happy #Donut Day! Ring Nebula Ingredients: helium (dark blue), hydrogen & oxygen (light blue), nitrogen & sulfur (reddish-orange), & carbon (core of star). Directions: Bake mid-sized star until it ejects material, forms an envelope of gas called a planetary nebula, and begins to fluoresce due to intense heat from remaining star. #Donut will keep for about 10,000 years. #NationalDoughnutDay 🍩
Right #now Chandra is studying the core of a galaxy in Hydra! Perched nearby in the sky is the Southern #Owl Nebula, a planetary nebula produced during a final phase in the life of a Sun-like star! #Today's Observation from #Space: 2 hours 46 minutes
Right #now Chandra is gazing at galaxies in Draco! Nearby in the sky are 2 interacting galaxies: LEDA 62867 (left) and NGC 6786 (right). Millions of years from now, after a long and graceful dance, NGC 6786 will likely consume its smaller galactic partner. #Today's Observation: 15 hours 33 minutes #Graceful #Space
NGC 604 is the largest region of #star formation in the nearby galaxy M33, roughly 2.7 million light years from #Earth. This composite image from Chandra & #Hubble shows part of the neighborhood where about 200 #hot, young, massive stars reside! Want this as a new background for your phone or tablet? http://chandra.harvard.edu/instagram/wallpaper/ Want to know more? http://chandra.harvard.edu/instagram/
#News: A galaxy isolated for billions of years, Markarian 1216 has been found to have more dark matter in its core than expected! More: The image on the right shows the galaxy called Markarian 1216 (Mrk 1216) in visible light from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope over the same field of view. Mrk 1216 belongs to a family of elliptically shaped galaxies that are more densely packed with stars in their centers than most other galaxies. Astronomers think they have descended from red, compact galaxies called "red nuggets" that formed about a billion years after the Big Bang, but then stalled in their growth about 10 billion years ago. If this evolution is correct, then the dark matter in Mrk 1216 and its galactic cousins should also be tightly packed. To test this idea for the first time, a pair of astronomers studied the X-ray brightness and temperature of hot gas at different distances from Mrk 1216's center, so they could "weigh" how much dark matter exists in the middle of the galaxy. The brighter colors at the center of the Chandra image represent the increased density of hot gas in the galaxy's core. According to the study, a halo, or fuzzy sphere, of dark matter formed around the stars in the center of Mrk 1216 about 3 or 4 billion years after the Big Bang. The formation of such a red nugget was typical for a wide range of elliptical galaxies seen today. However, unlike Mrk 1216, most giant elliptical galaxies continued to gradually grow in size when smaller galaxies merged with them over cosmic time. Previously, astronomers estimated that the supermassive black hole in Mrk 1216 is more massive than expected for a galaxy of its mass. This most recent study, however, concluded that the black hole mass is likely to be less than about four billion times the mass of the Sun, which means it may not be unusually massive for a galaxy as large as Mrk 1216. Researchers also searched for signs of outbursts from the supermassive black hole in the center of the galaxy. They saw hints of cavities in the hot gas similar to those observed in other massive galaxies & galaxy clusters like Perseus, but more data are needed to confirm their presence. https://s.si.edu/19mrk
#News: For the #first time, scientists have identified a huge stellar eruption called a coronal mass ejection (CME) from a star other than our Sun! Traveling at over 1 million km/h, the ejected material has a mass of roughly 2 billion billion pounds, about 10,000 times greater than the most massive CMEs launched into interplanetary #space by our Sun! Illustration Credit: NASA/GSFC/S. Wiessinger More: This artist's illustration depicts a coronal mass ejection, or CME, from a star. These events involve a large-scale expulsion of material, and have frequently been observed on the Sun. A new study using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has detected a CME from a different star, as reported in a new press release, providing a novel insight into these powerful phenomena. As the name implies these events occur in the corona, which is the outer atmosphere of a star. This "extrasolar" CME was seen from a star called HR 9024, which is located about 450 light years from Earth. This represents the first time that researchers have thoroughly identified and characterized a CME from a star other than the Sun. This event was marked by an intense flash of X-rays followed by the emission of a giant bubble of plasma, i.e., hot gas containing charged particles. The results confirm that CMEs are produced in magnetically active stars, and they also open the opportunity to systematically study such dramatic events in stars other than the Sun. The High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer, or HETGS, aboard Chandra is the only instrument that allows measurements of the motions of coronal plasmas with speeds of just a few tens of thousands of miles per hour, like those observed in HR 9024. During the flare, the Chandra observations clearly detected very hot material (between 18 to 45 million degrees Fahrenheit) that first rises and then drops with speeds between 225,000 to 900,000 miles per hour. This is in excellent agreement with the expected behavior for material linked to the stellar flare. Want to know more? http://chandra.harvard.edu
Right #now Chandra is studying a cluster of galaxies in Draco! Nearby in the sky is the Spindle Galaxy, NGC 5866. The outer halo of this galaxy is stippled with numerous globular clusters — gravitationally bound groups of #stars containing nearly a million stars each! #Today's Observation: 8 hours 3 minutes
#Today Chandra is studying planet Jupiter! #Jupiter's X-ray auroras are hundreds of times more energetic than Earth's northern lights. Also unlike Earth, Jupiter's northern & southern auroras appear to behave independently of each other. #New data could help to explain why! Background: Using XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray observations from March 2007 and May and June 2016, a team of researchers produced maps of Jupiter's X-ray emissions and identified an X-ray hot spot at each pole. Each hot spot can cover an area equal to about half the surface of the Earth. The team found that the hot spots had very different characteristics. The X-ray emission at Jupiter's south pole consistently pulsed every 11 minutes, but the X-rays seen from the north pole were erratic, increasing and decreasing in brightness — seemingly independent of the emission from the south pole. This makes Jupiter particularly puzzling. X-ray auroras have never been detected from our solar system's other gas giants, including Saturn. Jupiter is also unlike Earth, where the auroras on our planet's north and south poles generally mirror each other because the magnetic fields are similar. To understand how Jupiter produces its X-ray auroras, the team of researchers plans to combine new and upcoming X-ray data from Chandra and XMM-Newton with information from NASA's Juno mission. If scientists can connect the X-ray activity with physical changes observed in other data, they may be able to determine the process that generates the Jovian auroras and by association X-ray auroras at other planets!
#News: Neutron stars form when a massive star explodes as a supernova and the core of the star collapses onto itself. Sometimes these blasts are not symmetric. Recoil can fling stars from their galaxies, sometimes forcing companion stars to leave too! More: This image from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory shows the region around NGC 1399 and NGC 1404, two of the largest galaxies in the Fornax galaxy cluster. Located at a distance of about 60 million light years, Fornax is one of the closest galaxy clusters to Earth. This relative proximity allows astronomers to study the Fornax cluster in greater detail than most other galaxy clusters. A new study is an example of what can be achieved when telescopes like Chandra study the Fornax cluster for long periods of time. By combining 15 days' worth of Chandra observing of Fornax spread out between 1999 and 2015, astronomers discovered that pairs of stars had been expelled the galaxies in the cluster. Astronomers refer to pairs of stars orbiting around each other as a "binary" or "binary system." These stellar pairs can consist of combinations of stars like our Sun, or more exotic and denser varieties such as neutron stars or even black holes. Neutron stars form when a massive star explodes as a supernova and the core of the star collapses onto itself. Under certain conditions, these gargantuan blasts are not symmetric. The recoil caused by this asymmetry can kick the star with such force that it is expelled from the galaxy where it resides. These new Chandra results show that sometimes a neutron star's companion star is forced to exit the galaxy as well. While this image shows point-like sources in addition to more diffuse X-ray emission detected by Chandra, it is not possible to identify which of these sources may be the expelled binaries. The reason for this is that the authors employed a statistical methodology to determine that 30 out of the nearly 1,200 X-ray sources, associated with 29 galaxies in the Fornax cluster, were likely to be pairs of stars that had been kicked out of the center of their host galaxies. (Continued in the comments.)
Nested in Pavo, the #Peacock constellation, two galaxies are merging into one! The rapidly growing #BlackHole (AGN) in the smaller galaxy is also using its larger neighbor as a #food supply! Want to know more? http://chandra.harvard.edu/instagram/
The destruction of a planet may sound like the stuff of #ScienceFiction, but in this ancient cluster of #stars at the edge of our galaxy that may be just what happened! A planet was likely yanked from its parent star & then a white dwarf star shredded it with gravity! The #Science: How could a white dwarf star, which is only about the size of the Earth, be responsible for such an extreme act? When a star reaches its white dwarf stage, nearly all of the material from the star is packed inside a radius one hundredth that of the original star. This means that, for close encounters, the gravitational pull of the star and the associated tides, caused by the difference in gravity's pull on the near and far side of the planet, are greatly enhanced. For example, the gravity at the surface of a white dwarf is over ten thousand times higher than the gravity at the surface of the Sun! This particular X-ray source was monitored by NASA's Swift for about 200 days after its discovery and became dimmer during the period of Swift observations. The rate at which the X-ray brightness dropped agrees with theoretical models of a disruption of a planet by the gravitational tidal forces of a white dwarf. In these models, a planet is first pulled away from its parent star by the gravity of the dense concentration of stars in a globular cluster. When such a planet passes too close to a white dwarf, it can be torn apart by the intense tidal forces of the white dwarf. The planetary debris is then heated and glows in X-rays as it falls onto the white dwarf. The observed amount of X-rays emitted at different energies agrees with expectations for a tidal disruption event! Want to know more? http://chandra.harvard.edu/instagram/
Right #now Chandra is studying a neutron star in Ophiuchus! Nearby in the #sky is one of the nearest star-forming regions to Earth, the Rho Ophiuchi cloud about 450 light years away. The #beautiful variety of #color seen in this image shows different wavelengths of infrared light! Blue and cyan (blue-green) represent light emitted at wavelengths of 3.4 and 4.6 microns, which is predominantly from stars. Green and red represent light from 12 and 22 microns, respectively, which is mostly emitted by dust.
Right #now Chandra is gazing at a cluster of galaxies in Draco, the #dragon! Nearby in the sky, the monster black hole at the center of galaxy Markarian 817 is blasting material into #space at over 14 million kilometers per hour! (We think it should be nicknamed #Drogon for the day.) #Today's Observation: 10 hour 16 minutes
🌀 Tucked away in a spiral arm of galaxy NGC 2276 about 100 million light years from Earth, a black hole 50,000 times the mass of our Sun is likely suppressing #star formation for over 1,000 light years! Want to know more about #BlackHoles? Check out this Black Hole Primer with Chandra: http://chandra.si.edu/blackhole ⚫️ More about NGC 2276-3c: https://s.si.edu/2LPolKb
This fascinating image of supernova remnant SNR 0103-72.6 reveals a nearly perfect #ring about 150 light years in diameter! The ring marks the outer limits of a shock wave produced as material ejected in the stellar explosion plows into the interstellar gas. The size of the ring indicates that we see the supernova remnant as it was about 10,000 years after its progenitor #star exploded! Want to know more? http://chandra.harvard.edu/instagram/ #Science is #beautiful!
Right #now Chandra is gazing at a galaxy cluster in Draco. Nearby is the famous Tadpole Galaxy, seen here with thousands of galaxies in the background! The Tadpole's tail of stars is over 280,000 light years long, stretched by gravity during a previous close encounter with another galaxy! #Today's Observation: 11 hours 6 minutes #Beautiful #space #pics!
Roughly 1,500 light years away, the #Orion Nebula is one of the closest star-forming regions to Earth! The feathery pink and purple filaments are clouds of gas & dust that will one day condense into disks of material from which future stars will be born! ✨ Want this as a new background for your phone or tablet? http://chandra.harvard.edu/instagram/wallpaper/ Want to know more? http://chandra.harvard.edu/instagram/ #Beautiful #space #science!