Hubble Space Telescope - instagram lists #feedolist

NASAHubble

#HubbleFriday Although it looks more like an entity seen through a microscope than a telescope, this rounded object, named NGC 2022, is certainly not algae or tiny, blobby jellyfish. Instead, it is a vast orb of gas in space, cast off by an aging star. The star is visible in the orb's center, shining through the gases it formerly held onto for most of its stellar life. When stars like the Sun grow advanced in age, they expand and glow red. These so-called red giants then begin to lose their outer layers of material into space. More than half of such a star's mass can be shed in this manner, forming a shell of surrounding gas. At the same time, the star's core shrinks and grows hotter, emitting ultraviolet light that causes the expelled gases to glow. This type of object is called, somewhat confusingly, a planetary nebula, though it has nothing to do with planets. The name derives from the rounded, planet-like appearance of these objects in early telescopes. NGC 2022 is located in the constellation of Orion. For more information, follow the link in our bio. Text credit: ESA (European Space Agency) Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, R. Wade #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #nebula #star #Orion #Friday

NASAHubble

Happy #LeftHandersDay! Hubble astronaut John Grunsfeld is left handed, which made him especially good at getting to 36 hard-to-reach connectors on the left side of Hubble’s power control unit when it was replaced in 2002. Image 1: Dark, close-up view of STS-109 Mission specialist John Grunsfeld holding a tool during repairs to the Power Control Unit (PCU) on the Hubble Space Telescope. The image was taken during the third of five Extravehicular Activities (EVAs) of the mission. He is replacing the connectors on the new Power Control Unit which has just installed. Image 2: Close-up view of the newly installed Power Control Unit (PCU) installed in the Hubble Space Telescope during the third of five Extravehicular Activities (EVAs) of the mission. To hear more about this, check out our IGTV video "Hubble Tool TIme Episode 5 - Servicing Mission 3B." Credit: NASA/Hubble #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #astronaut #lefty #servicing

NASAHubble

#HubbleFriday The pair of strange, luminescent creatures at play in this image are actually galaxies — realms of millions upon millions of stars. This galactic duo is known as UGC 2369. The galaxies are interacting, meaning that their mutual gravitational attraction is pulling them closer and closer together and distorting their shapes in the process. A tenuous bridge of gas, dust and stars can be seen connecting the two galaxies, created when they pulled material out into space across the diminishing divide between them. Interaction with others is a common event in the history of most galaxies. For larger galaxies like the Milky Way, the majority of these interactions involve significantly smaller so-called dwarf galaxies. But every few billion years, a more momentous event can occur. For our home galaxy, the next big event will take place in about four billion years, when it will collide with its bigger neighbor, the Andromeda galaxy. Over time, the two galaxies will likely merge into one — already nicknamed Milkomeda. For more information, follow the link in our bio. Text credit: ESA (European Space Agency) Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, A. Evans #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #galaxy #interact #gravity #friday

NASAHubble

#HubbleFriday Believe it or not, this long, luminous streak, speckled with bright blisters and pockets of material, is a spiral galaxy like our Milky Way. But how could that be? It turns out that we see this galaxy, named NGC 3432, oriented directly edge-on to us from our vantage point here on Earth. The galaxy’s spiral arms and bright core are hidden, and we instead see the thin strip of its very outer reaches. Dark bands of cosmic dust, patches of varying brightness and pink regions of star formation help with making out the true shape of NGC 3432 — but it’s still somewhat of a challenge! Because observatories such as Hubble have seen spiral galaxies at every kind of orientation, astronomers can tell when we happen to have caught one from the side. The galaxy is located in the constellation of Leo Minor (the Lesser Lion). For more information, follow the link in our bio. Text credit: ESA (European Space Agency) Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, A. Filippenko, R. Jansen #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #galaxy #spiral #milkyway #edgeon #leo #friday

NASAHubble

This artist's illustration shows an alien world that is losing magnesium and iron gas from its atmosphere. The observations represent the first time that so-called "heavy metals"—elements more massive than hydrogen and helium—have been detected escaping from a hot Jupiter, a large gaseous exoplanet orbiting very close to its star. The planet, known as WASP-121b, orbits a star brighter and hotter than the Sun. The planet is so dangerously close to its star that its upper atmosphere reaches a blazing 4,600 degrees Fahrenheit, about 10 times greater than any known planetary atmosphere. A torrent of ultraviolet light from the host star is heating the planet's upper atmosphere, which is causing the magnesium and iron gas to escape into space. Observations by Hubble's Imaging Spectrograph have detected the spectral signatures of magnesium and iron far away from the planet. The planet's "hugging" distance from the star means that it is on the verge of being ripped apart by the star's gravitational tidal forces. The powerful gravitational forces have altered the planet's shape so that it appears more football shaped. The WASP-121 system is about 900 light-years from Earth. For more information, follow the link in our bio. Credits- Artwork: NASA, ESA, and J. Olmsted (STScI); Science: NASA, ESA, and D. Sing (Johns Hopkins University) #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #exoplanet #heavymetal #Hydrogen #Helium #iron #magnesium #jupiter

NASAHubble

This #HubbleClassic shows an area where stars are forming, not in our galaxy but in a nearby one known as the Small Magellanic Cloud. A brilliant star cluster called NGC 346 is swaddled in clouds of gas & dust from which the stars formed. For more information on Hubble, follow the link in our bio. Credit: NASA, ESA, and A. Nota (STScI/ESA) #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #smallmagellaniccloud #galaxy #starcluster #star #cluster

NASAHubble

#HubbleFriday Every now and then, Hubble glimpses a common object — say, a spiral galaxy — in an interesting or unusual way. A sharply angled perspective, such as the one shown in this Hubble image, can make it seem as if we, the viewers, are craning our necks to see over a barrier into the galaxy's bright center. In the case of NGC 3169, this barrier is the thick dust embedded within the galaxy's spiral arms. Cosmic dust comprises a potpourri of particles, including water ice, hydrocarbons, silicates and other solid material. It has many origins and sources, from the leftovers of star and planet formation to molecules modified over millions of years by interactions with starlight. NGC 3169 is located about 70 million light-years away in the constellation of Sextans. It is part of the Leo I Group of galaxies, which, like the Local Group that houses our home galaxy, the Milky Way, is part of a larger galactic congregation known as the Virgo Supercluster. For more information, follow the link in our bio. Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, L. Ho Text credit: European Space Agency (ESA) #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #galaxy #spiral #friday #sextans #virgo

NASAHubble

#HubbleClassic This stunning view of M101, also known as the Pinwheel galaxy, is one of the largest images Hubble has ever captured of a spiral galaxy. Assembled from 51 exposures taken during various studies over nearly ten years, this infrared and visible-light image measures 16,000 by 12,000 pixels. Ground-based images were used to fill in the portions of the galaxy that Hubble did not observe. The giant spiral disk of stars, dust and gas is 170,000 light-years across — nearly twice the diameter of our galaxy, the Milky Way. M101 is estimated to contain at least one trillion stars. The galaxy’s spiral arms are sprinkled with large regions of star-forming nebulas. These nebulas are areas of intense star formation within giant molecular hydrogen clouds. Brilliant, young clusters of hot, blue, newborn stars trace out the spiral arms. For more information on Hubble, follow the link in our bio. Credits: Hubble Image: NASA, ESA, K. Kuntz (JHU), F. Bresolin (University of Hawaii), J. Trauger (Jet Propulsion Lab), J. Mould (NOAO), Y.-H. Chu (University of Illinois, Urbana) and STScI; CFHT Image: Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/J.-C. Cuillandre/Coelum; NOAO Image: G. Jacoby, B. Bohannan, M. Hanna/NOAO/AURA/NSF #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #messier #101 #galaxy #spiral #stars

NASAHubble

#HubbleFriday Galaxies come in many shapes and sizes. One of the key galaxy types we see in the universe is the spiral galaxy, as demonstrated in an especially beautiful way by the subject of this Hubble image, NGC 2985. NGC 2985 lies over 70 million light-years from the solar system in the constellation of Ursa Major. The intricate, near-perfect symmetry on display here reveals the incredible complexity of NGC 2985. Multiple tightly wound spiral arms widen as they whirl outward from the galaxy’s bright core, slowly fading and dissipating until these majestic structures disappear into the emptiness of intergalactic space, bringing a beautiful end to their starry splendor. Over eons, spiral galaxies tend to run into other galaxies, often resulting in mergers. These coalescing events scramble the winding structures of the original galaxies, smoothing and rounding their shape. These objects possess a beauty all their own, distinct from the spiral galaxies from whence they came. For more information on Hubble, follow the link in our bio. Text credit: ESA (European Space Agency) Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, L. Ho #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #galaxy #spiral

NASAHubble

#HubbleClassic 25 years ago this week, fragments of the broken-up Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 slammed into #Jupiter. Hubble watched the strikes, revealing giant plumes and dark impact scars as they appeared on the battered planet. For more information on Hubble, follow the link in our bio. Credit: NASA/Hubble #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #Jupiter #25YearsAgo #comet #impact

NASAHubble

In this #HubbleClassic, the light from distant galaxies is being bent & stretched by gravity into weird arcs and shapes, including one that looks like an invading space alien. The universe is eerie enough without giving us an apparition of a 1980s video game alien attacker. This oddball-looking object is really a mirage created by the gravitational field of a foreground cluster of galaxies warping space and distorting the background images of more distant galaxies. This effect, called gravitational lensing, can make multiple mirror image copies of the light coming from a far-flung galaxy. It is a powerful tool for seeing remote galaxies that otherwise would not be observable by Hubble because they are too dim and far away. In this Hubble photo a background spiral galaxy is warped into an image that resembles a cartoon of a simulated space invader. The foreground massive cluster, called Abell 68, lies 2 billion light-years away. The brightened and stretched lensed images come from galaxies far behind it. For more information on Hubble, follow the link in our bio. CREDITS: NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage/ESA-Hubble Collaboration; Acknowledgment: N. Rose #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #galaxies #observations #galaxyclusters #gravitationallensing

NASAHubble

#HubbleFriday This Hubble image shows bright, colorful pockets of star formation blooming like roses in a spiral galaxy named NGC 972. The orange-pink glow is created as hydrogen gas reacts to the intense light streaming outwards from nearby newborn stars; these bright patches can be seen here amid dark, tangled streams of cosmic dust. Astronomers look for these telltale signs of star formation when they study galaxies throughout the cosmos, as star formation rates, locations, and histories offer critical clues about how these colossal collections of gas and dust have evolved over time. New generations of stars contribute to — and are also, in turn, influenced by — the broader forces and factors that mold galaxies throughout the universe, such as gravity, radiation, matter, and dark matter. German-British astronomer William Herschel is credited with the discovery of NGC 972 in 1784. Astronomers have since measured its distance, finding it to be just under 70 million light-years away. For more information, follow the link in our bio. Text credit: ESA (European Space Agency) Image credit: ESA/Hubble, NASA, L. Ho #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #galaxy #stars #herschel #starformation

NASAHubble

Astronomers enlisted the combined multi-wavelength capabilities of NASA's Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes to assemble for the first time a "fingerprint" of the chemical composition of exoplanet GJ 3470 b's atmosphere, which turns out to be mostly hydrogen and helium, and surprisingly, largely lacking heavier elements. One possible explanation is that the planet formed as a 10-Earth-mass rocky core that then accumulated hydrogen very close to its star, rather than migrated in which is the conventional wisdom for star-hugging planets. For more information, follow the link in our bio. Credits- Artist's Illustration: NASA, ESA, and L. Hustak (STScI); Science: NASA, ESA, and B. Benneke (University of Montreal) #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #exoplanet #planet #spitzer #kepler

NASAHubble

#HubbleFriday This Hubble image shows the spiral galaxy Messier 98, which is located about 45 million light-years away in the constellation of Coma Berenices. The galaxy was discovered in 1781 by the French astronomer Pierre Méchain, a colleague of Charles Messier, and is one of the faintest objects in Messier’s astronomical catalog. Messier 98 is estimated to contain about a trillion stars, and is full of cosmic dust — visible here as a web of red-brown stretching across the frame — and hydrogen gas. This abundance of star-forming material means that Messier 98 is producing stellar newborns at a high rate; the galaxy shows the characteristic signs of stars springing to life throughout its bright center and whirling arms. This image of Messier 98 was taken in 1995 with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, an instrument that was installed on Hubble from 1993 until 2009. These observations were taken in infrared and visible light as part of a study of galaxy cores within the Virgo Cluster, and feature a portion of the galaxy near the center. For more information, follow the link in our bio. Text credit: ESA (European Space Agency) Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, V. Rubin et al. #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #friday #galaxy #messier #m98 #charlesmessier

NASAHubble

#HappyBirthday to French astronomer Charles Messier, born #OTD in 1730, who cataloged night-sky objects that can be observed with backyard telescopes, including this #HubbleClassic, M64 (the Black Eye Galaxy). For more information on Hubble, follow the link in our bio, Credits: NASA and the Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI); Acknowledgment: S. Smartt (Institute of Astronomy) and D. Richstone (U. Michigan) #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #Galaxy

NASAHubble

Scientists using Hubble have confirmed the presence of electrically-charged molecules in space shaped like soccer balls, shedding light on the mysterious contents of the interstellar medium (ISM) – the gas and dust that fills interstellar space. For more information, follow the link in our bio. Credit: NASA/Goddard #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #molecules #soccer #interstellarmedium #ISM #carbon

NASAHubble

#HubbleFriday This image shows an irregular galaxy named IC 10, a member of the Local Group — a collection of over 50 galaxies in our cosmic neighborhood that includes the Milky Way. IC 10 is a remarkable object. It is the closest-known starburst galaxy, meaning that it is undergoing a furious bout of star formation fueled by ample supplies of cool hydrogen gas. This gas condenses into vast molecular clouds, which then form into dense knots where pressures and temperatures reach a point sufficient to ignite nuclear fusion, thus giving rise to new generations of stars. As an irregular galaxy, IC 10 lacks the majestic shape of spiral galaxies such as the Milky Way, or the rounded, ethereal appearance of elliptical galaxies. It is a faint object, despite its relative proximity to us of 2.2 million light-years. In fact, IC 10 only became known to humankind in 1887, when American astronomer Lewis Swift spotted it during an observing campaign. The small galaxy remains difficult to study even today, because it is located along a line-of-sight which is chock-full of cosmic dust and stars. For more information, follow the link in our bio. Text credit: ESA (European Space Agency) Image credit: NASA, ESA and F. Bauer #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #galaxy #starburst #Friday

NASAHubble

#HubbleClassic #OTD in 1997 Hubble released this image of a 250-mile-high plume (at left) spouting from Jupiter's volcanic moon Io. Erupting from Io's Pele volcano, the gas & dust must've been blasted at over 2,000 miles per hour to form a plume that big. For more information on Hubble, follow the link in our bio. Credits: John Spencer (Lowell Observatory) and NASA #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #Jupiter #volcano #io

NASAHubble

#HubbleFriday When massive stars die at the end of their short lives, they light up the cosmos with bright, explosive bursts of light and material known as supernovae. A supernova event is incredibly energetic and intensely luminous — so much so that it forms what looks like an especially bright new star that slowly fades away over time. These exploding stars glow so incredibly brightly when they first form that they can be spotted from afar using telescopes such as Hubble. The subject of this image, a spiral galaxy named NGC 4051 — about 45 million light-years from Earth — has hosted multiple supernovae in past years. The first was spotted in 1983 (SN 1983I), the second in 2003 (SN 2003ie), and the most recent in 2010 (SN 2010br). These explosive events were seen scattered throughout the center and spiral arms of NGC 4051. SN 1983I and SN 2010br were both categorized as Type Ic supernovae. This type of supernova is produced by the core collapse of a massive star that has lost its outer layer of hydrogen and helium, either via winds or by mass transfer to a companion star. Because of this, Type Ic — and also Type Ib — supernovae are sometimes referred to as stripped core-collapse supernovae. NGC 4501 sits in the southern part of a cluster of galaxies known as the Ursa Major I Cluster. This cluster is especially rich in spirals such as NGC 4051, and is a subset of the larger Virgo Supercluster, which also houses the Milky Way. For more information, follow the link in our bio. Text credit: ESA (European Space Agency) Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, D. Crenshaw and O. Fox #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #supernova #galaxy #Friday

NASAHubble

#HubbleClassic This billowing tower of gas and dust rises from a stellar nursery called the Eagle Nebula. The soaring tower is 9.5 light-years (or about 57 trillion miles) high, about twice the distance from our Sun to the next nearest star. For more information on Hubble, follow the link in our bio. Credit: NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #nebula #lightyear #spire #tower #eaglenebula

NASAHubble

#HubbleFriday This striking image was taken by Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3), a powerful instrument installed on the telescope in 2009. WFC3 is responsible for many of Hubble’s most breathtaking and iconic photographs. Shown here, NGC 7773 is a beautiful example of a barred spiral galaxy. A luminous bar-shaped structure cuts prominently through the galaxy's bright core, extending to the inner boundary of NGC 7773's sweeping, pinwheel-like spiral arms. Astronomers think that these bar structures emerge later in the lifetime of a galaxy, as star-forming material makes its way towards the galactic center — younger spirals do not feature barred structures as often as older spirals do, suggesting that bars are a sign of galactic maturity. They are also thought to act as stellar nurseries, as they gleam brightly with copious numbers of youthful stars. Our galaxy, the Milky Way, is thought to be a barred spiral like NGC 7773. By studying galactic specimens such as NGC 7773 throughout the universe, researchers hope to learn more about the processes that have shaped — and continue to shape — our cosmic home. For more information, follow the link in our bio. Text credit: ESA (European Space Agency) Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, J. Walsh #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #galaxies #barred #spiral #wfpc3 #Friday

NASAHubble

#HubbleClassic #OTD in 2014, astronomers released a new view of 10,000 galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. It included observations in visible, infrared & ultraviolet light, making it the most "colorful" picture yet assembled of the evolving universe. For more information on Hubble, follow the link in out bio. mage: NASA, ESA, H. Teplitz and M. Rafelski (IPAC/Caltech), A. Koekemoer (STScI), R. Windhorst (Arizona State University), and Z. Levay (STScI); Science: NASA, ESA, H. Teplitz and M. Rafelski (IPAC/Caltech), P. Kurczynski (Rutgers University), N. Bond (Goddard Space Flight Center), E. Soto (Catholic University), N. Grogin and A. Koekemoer (STScI), H. Atek (École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland), T. Brown and D. Coe (STScI), J. Colbert and Y. Dai (IPAC/Caltech), H. Ferguson (STScI), S. Finkelstein (University of Texas, Austin), J. Gardner (Goddard Space Flight Center), E. Gawiser (Rutgers University), M. Giavalisco (University of Massachusetts, Amherst), C. Gronwall (Penn State University), D. Hanish (IPAC/Caltech), K.-S. Lee (Purdue University), Z. Levay (STScI), D. De Mello (Catholic University), S. Ravindranath and R. Ryan (STScI), B. Siana (University of California, Riverside), C. Scarlata (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis), E. Voyer (CNRS, Marseille), and R. Windhorst (Arizona State University) #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #galaxies #ultraviolet #visible #infrared #deepfield #hudf

NASAHubble

#HubbleFriday This luminous orb is the galaxy NGC 4621, better known as Messier 59. As this latter moniker indicates, the galaxy is listed in the famous catalog of deep-sky objects compiled by French comet-hunter Charles Messier in the 18th century. However, German astronomer Johann Gottfried Koehler is credited with discovering the galaxy just days before Messier added it to his collection in 1779. Modern observations show that Messier 59 is an elliptical galaxy, one of the three main kinds of galaxies along with spirals and irregulars. Ellipticals tend to be the most evolved of the trio, full of old, red stars and exhibiting little or no new star formation. Messier 59, however, bucks this trend somewhat; the galaxy does show signs of star formation, with some newborn stars residing within a disk near the core. Located in the 2,000-strong Virgo cluster of galaxies within the constellation of Virgo (the Virgin), Messier 59 lies approximately 50 million light-years away from us. For more information, follow the link in our bio. Text credit: ESA (European Space Agency) Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, P. Cote #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #elliptical #galaxy #messier #m59 #messier59 #messiercatalog

NASAHubble

#HubbleClassic Two spiral galaxies are seen passing by each other like majestic ships in the night in this Hubble image. The larger and more massive galaxy on the left is cataloged as NGC 2207 and the smaller one on the right is IC 2163. Strong tidal forces from NGC 2207 have distorted the shape of IC 2163, flinging out stars and gas into long streamers stretching out a hundred thousand light-years toward the right-hand edge of the image. Calculations indicate that IC 2163 is swinging past NGC 2207, having made its closest approach 40 million years ago. However, IC 2163 does not have sufficient energy to escape from the gravitational pull of NGC 2207, and is destined to be pulled back and swing past the larger galaxy again in the future. Trapped in their shrinking, mutual orbit, these two galaxies will continue to distort and disrupt each other. Eventually, billions of years from now, they will merge into a single, more massive galaxy. It is believed that many present-day galaxies, including the Milky Way, were assembled from a similar process. For more information on Hubble, follow the link in our bio Credit: NASA and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI)

NASAHubble

#HubbleFriday This Hubble image stars Messier 90, a beautiful spiral galaxy located roughly 60 million light-years from the Milky Way in the constellation of Virgo. The galaxy is part of the Virgo Cluster, a gathering of galaxies that is over 1,200 strong. This image combines infrared, ultraviolet and visible light gathered by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 on Hubble. This camera was operational between 1994 and 2010, producing images with an unusual staircase-like shape as seen here. This is because the camera was made up of four light detectors with overlapping fields of view, one of which gave a higher magnification than the other three. When the four images are combined together in one picture, the high-magnification image needs to be reduced in size in order for the image to align properly. This produces an image with a layout that looks like steps. Messier 90 is remarkable; it is one of the few galaxies seen to be traveling toward the Milky Way, not away from it. The galaxy’s light reveals this incoming motion in a phenomenon known as blueshift. In simple terms, the galaxy is compressing the wavelength of its light as it moves towards us, like a slinky being squashed when you push on one end. This increases the frequency of the light and shifts it towards the blue end of the spectrum. As our universe is expanding, almost all of the galaxies we see in the universe are moving away from us, and we therefore see their light more towards the red end of the spectrum, known as redshift. Messier 90, however, appears to be a rare exception. For more information, follow the link in our bio. Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, W. Sargent et al. Text credit: European Space Agency (ESA) #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #Messier #m90 #galaxy #spiral #virgo #infrared #ultraviolet #visible #Friday

NASAHubble

#HubbleClassic #OTD in 2008, Hubble observed a third red spot alongside Jupiter's famous Great Red Spot and the smaller Red Spot Jr. in the giant planet's turbulent atmosphere. For more information, follow the link in our bio. Credits: M. Wong and I. de Pater (University of California, Berkeley) #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #jupiter #greatredspot #solarsystemstorms

NASAHubble

The irregular galaxy NGC 4485 shows all the signs of having been involved in a hit-and-run accident with a bypassing galaxy. Rather than destroying the galaxy, the chance encounter is spawning a new generation of stars, and presumably planets. The right side of the galaxy is ablaze with star formation, shown in the plethora of young blue stars and star-incubating pinkish nebulas. The left side, however, looks intact. It contains hints of the galaxy’s previous spiral structure, which, at one time, was undergoing normal galactic evolution. The larger culprit galaxy, NGC 4490, is off the bottom of the frame. The two galaxies sideswiped each other millions of years ago and are now 24,000 light-years apart. The gravitational tug-of-war between them created rippling patches of higher-density gas and dust within both galaxies. This activity triggered a flurry of star formation. This galaxy is a nearby example of the kind of cosmic bumper-car activity that was more common billions of years ago when the universe was smaller and galaxies were closer together. For more information, follow the link in our bio. Text credit: Space Telescope Science Institute Image credit: NASA, ESA; acknowledgment: T. Roberts (Durham University, UK), D. Calzetti (University of Massachusetts) and the LEGUS Team, R. Tully (University of Hawaii) and R. Chandar (University of Toledo) #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #galaxy #stars #evolution

NASAHubble

#HubbleFriday Dotted across the sky in the constellation of Pictor (the Painter’s Easel) is the galaxy cluster highlighted here by Hubble: SPT-CL J0615-5746, or SPT0615 for short. SPT0615, first discovered by the South Pole Telescope less than a decade ago, is a massive cluster of galaxies, one of the farthest observed to cause gravitational lensing. Gravitational lensing occurs when light from a background object is deflected around mass between the object and the observer. Among the identified background objects, there is SPT0615-JD, a galaxy that is thought to have emerged just 500 million years after the big bang. This puts it among the very earliest structures to form in the universe. It is also the farthest galaxy ever imaged by means of gravitational lensing. Just as ancient paintings can tell us about the period of history in which they were painted, so too can ancient galaxies tell us about the era of the universe in which they existed. To learn about cosmological history, astronomers explore the most distant reaches of the universe, probing ever further out into the cosmos. The light from distant objects travels to us from so far away that it takes an immensely long time to reach us, meaning that it carries information from the past — information about the time at which it was emitted. By studying such distant objects, astronomers are continuing to fill the gaps in our picture of what the very early universe looked like, and uncover more about how it evolved into its current state. For more information, follow the link in our bio. Text credit: ESA (European Space Agency) Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, I. Karachentsev et al., F. High et al. #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #galaxy #cluster #gravity #lensing #friday

NASAHubble

#HubbleFriday Few of the universe’s residents are as iconic as the spiral galaxy. These limelight-hogging celestial objects combine whirling, pinwheeling arms with scatterings of sparkling stars, glowing bursts of gas, and dark, weaving lanes of cosmic dust, creating truly awesome scenes — especially when viewed through a telescope such as Hubble. In fact, this image from Hubble frames a perfect spiral specimen: the stunning NGC 2903. NGC 2903 is located about 30 million light-years away in the constellation of Leo, and was studied as part of a Hubble survey of the central regions of roughly 145 nearby disk galaxies. This study aimed to help astronomers better understand the relationship between the black holes that lurk at the cores of galaxies like these, and the rugby-ball-shaped bulge of stars, gas and dust at the galaxy’s center — such as that seen in this image. For more information, follow the link in our bio. Text credit: ESA (European Space Agency) Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, L. Ho et al. #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #galaxy #spiral #leo

NASAHubble

How far is far? And, how do you know when you get there? In 1995, astronomers decided to use Hubble to conduct a bold and daring experiment to address this puzzle. For 10 consecutive days, Hubble stared at one tiny, seemingly empty patch of sky for 1 million seconds. The gamble of precious telescope time paid off. Hubble captured the feeble glow of myriad never-before-seen galaxies. Many of the galaxies are so far away it has taken billions of years for their light to reach us. Therefore, the view is like looking down a "time corridor," where galaxies can be seen as they looked billions of years ago. Hubble became astronomy's ultimate time machine. The resulting landmark image is called the Hubble Deep Field. At the time, the image won the gold medal for being the farthest peek into the universe ever made. Its stunning success encouraged astronomers to pursue a series of Hubble deep-field surveys. The succeeding surveys uncovered more galaxies at greater distance from Earth, thanks to new cameras installed on Hubble during astronaut servicing missions. The cameras increased the telescope's power to look even deeper into the universe. These surveys provided astronomers with a huge scrapbook of images, showing how, following the big bang, galaxies built themselves up over time to become the large, majestic assemblages seen today in the nearby universe. Now, astronomers are releasing a new deep-field image by weaving together exposures from several of these previous galaxy "fishing expeditions." Their efforts have produced the largest, most comprehensive “history book” of galaxies in the universe. The snapshot, a combination of nearly 7,500 separate Hubble exposures, represents 16 years' worth of observations. The ambitious endeavor is called the Hubble Legacy Field. For more info, follow the link in our bio. Credits: NASA, ESA, and G. Illingworth (University of California, Santa Cruz; UCO/Lick Observatory) #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #galaxies #bigbang #deepfield #legacy

NASAHubble

This #HubbleClassic shows ripples of glowing gas in a stellar nursery called the Omega or Swan Nebula. Also known as M17, the nebula is ~5,500 light-years away in the constellation Sagittarius. This image was released in 2003 for Hubble's 13th anniversary. For more information on Hubble, follow the link in our bio. Credits: NASA, ESA and J. Hester (ASU) #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #omega #swan #m17 #messier #sagittarius #anniversary

NASAHubble

#HubbleFriday This sparkling burst of stars is Messier 75. It is a globular cluster: a spherical collection of stars bound together by gravity. Clusters like this orbit around galaxies and typically reside in their outer and less-crowded areas, gathering to form dense communities in the galactic suburbs. Messier 75 lies in our Milky Way galaxy in the constellation of Sagittarius, around 67,000 light-years away from Earth. The majority of the cluster’s stars, about 400,000 in total, are found in its core; it is one of the most densely populated clusters ever found, with a phenomenal luminosity of some 180,000 times that of the Sun. No wonder it photographs so well! For more information, follow the link in our bio. Text credit: ESA (European Space Agency) Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, F. Ferraro et al. #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #Messier #75 #globularcluster #cluster #stars #gravity #MilkyWay #Sagittarius

NASAHubble

This is a ground-based telescope's view of the Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of our Milky Way. The inset image, taken by Hubble, reveals one of many star clusters scattered throughout the dwarf galaxy. The cluster members include a special class of pulsating star called a Cepheid variable, which brightens and dims at a predictable rate that corresponds to its intrinsic brightness. Once astronomers determine that value, they can measure the light from these stars to calculate an accurate distance to the galaxy. When the new Hubble observations are correlated with an independent distance measurement technique to the Large Magellanic Cloud (using straightforward trigonometry), the researchers were able to strengthen the foundation of the so-called "cosmic distance ladder." This "fine-tuning" has significantly improved the accuracy of the rate at which the universe is expanding, called the Hubble constant. For more information, follow the link in our bio. Credits: NASA, ESA, A. Riess (STScI/JHU), and Palomar Digitized Sky Survey #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #expansion #HubbleConstant #MilkyWay #LMC #cepheid #distance

NASAHubble

This image of the Southern Crab Nebula was taken to celebrate Hubble's 29th anniversary since its launch on April 24, 1990. It shows the results of two stellar companions in a gravitational waltz, several thousand light-years from Earth in the southern constellation Centaurus. The stellar duo, consisting of a red giant and white dwarf, are too close together to see individually in this view. But the consequences of their whirling about each other are two vast shells of gas expanding into space like a runaway hot air balloon. Both stars are embedded in a flat disk of hot material that constricts the outflowing gas so that it only escapes away above and below the stars. This apparently happens in episodes because the nebula has two distinct nested hourglass-structures. The bubbles of gas and dust appear brightest at the edges, giving the illusion of crab legs. The rich colors correspond to glowing hydrogen, sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen. For more information, follow the link in our bio. Credits: NASA, ESA, and STScI #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #nebula #southerncrab #anniversary #gravity

NASAHubble

#HubbleClassic Like an insect’s feelers, long tendrils of gas and dust curl and reach across space throughout the enormous stellar factory known as the Tarantula Nebula. Hubble shared this image of the cosmic spider in 2012 for the telescope’s 22nd anniversary. For more information on Hubble, follow the link in our bio. Credits: NASA, ESA, D. Lennon and E. Sabbi (ESA/STScI), J. Anderson, S. E. de Mink, R. van der Marel, T. Sohn, and N. Walborn (STScI), N. Bastian (Excellence Cluster, Munich), L. Bedin (INAF, Padua), E. Bressert (ESO), P. Crowther (University of Sheffield), A. de Koter (University of Amsterdam), C. Evans (UKATC/STFC, Edinburgh), A. Herrero (IAC, Tenerife), N. Langer (AifA, Bonn), I. Platais (JHU), and H. Sana (University of Amsterdam) #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #spider #nebula #anniversary #tarantula

NASAHubble

#HubbleFriday Globular clusters are inherently beautiful objects, but the subject of this Hubble image, Messier 3, is commonly acknowledged to be one of the most beautiful of them all. Containing an incredible half-million stars, this 8-billion-year-old cosmic bauble is one of the largest and brightest globular clusters ever discovered. However, what makes Messier 3 extra special is its unusually large population of variable stars — stars that fluctuate in brightness over time. New variable stars continue to be discovered in this sparkling stellar nest to this day, but so far we know of 274, the highest number found in any globular cluster by far. At least 170 of these are of a special variety called RR Lyrae variables, which pulse with a period directly related to their intrinsic brightness. If astronomers know how bright a star truly is based on its mass and classification, and they know how bright it appears to be from our viewpoint here on Earth, they can thus work out its distance from us. For this reason, RR Lyrae stars are known as standard candles — objects of known luminosity whose distance and position can be used to help us understand more about vast celestial distances and the scale of the cosmos. Messier 3 also contains a relatively high number of so-called blue stragglers, which are shown quite clearly in this Hubble image. These are blue main sequence stars that appear to be young because they are bluer and more luminous than other stars in the cluster. As all stars in globular clusters are believed to have formed together and thus to be roughly the same age, only a difference in mass can give these stars a different color. A red, old star can appear bluer when it acquires more mass, for instance by stripping it from a nearby star. The extra mass changes it into a bluer star, which makes us think it is younger than it really is. For more information, follow the link in our bio. Text credit: ESA (European Space Agency) Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, G. Piotto et al. #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #stars #cluster #globularcluster #messier #m3

nasahubble

#HubbleClassic Fiery-looking plumes of hydrogen gas blast out of the blue disk of galaxy M82, where stars form 10x faster than in our galaxy. Hubble captured this visible & infrared mosaic of M82 in 2006 to celebrate the telescope's 16th anniversary. For more information on Hubble, follow the link in our bio. Credits: NASA, ESA, and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA); Acknowledgment: J. Gallagher (University of Wisconsin), M. Mountain (STScI), and P. Puxley (National Science Foundation #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #galaxy #m82 #messier #anniversary

nasahubble

#HubbleFriday Star clusters are commonly featured in cosmic photoshoots, and are also well-loved by the keen eye of Hubble. These large gatherings of celestial gems are striking sights — and Messier 2 is certainly no exception. Messier 2 is located in the constellation of Aquarius, about 55,000 light-years away. It is a globular cluster, a spherical group of stars all tightly bound together by gravity. With a diameter of roughly 175 light-years, a population of 150,000 stars, and an age of 13 billion years, Messier 2 is one of the largest clusters of its kind and one of the oldest associated with the Milky Way. This Hubble image of Messier 2’s core was created using visible and infrared light. Most of the cluster’s mass is concentrated at its center, with shimmering streams of stars extending outward into space. It is bright enough that it can even be seen with the naked eye when observing conditions are extremely good. For more information, follow the link in our bio. Text credit: ESA (European Space Agency) Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, G. Piotto et al. #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #star #cluster #globularcluster #messier #m2 #aquarius

nasahubble

#HubbleClassic Dark, wispy clouds of gas and dust are giving birth to new stars 6,400 light-years away in the Monkey Head Nebula (NGC 2174). Hubble captured this infrared view of a small part of the nebula 5 years ago for the telescope's 24th anniversary. For more information on Hubble, follow the link in our bio. Credits: NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #nebula #infrared

nasahubble

#HubbleFriday This star-studded image shows us a portion of Messier 11, an open star cluster in the southern constellation of Scutum (the Shield). Messier 11 is also known as the Wild Duck Cluster, as its brightest stars form a “V” shape that somewhat resembles a flock of ducks in flight. Messier 11 is one of the richest and most compact open clusters currently known. By investigating the brightest, hottest main sequence stars in the cluster, astronomers estimate that it formed roughly 220 million years ago. Open clusters tend to contain fewer and younger stars than their more compact globular cousins, and Messier 11 is no exception: at its center lie many blue stars, the hottest and youngest of the cluster’s few thousand stellar residents. The lifespans of open clusters are also relatively short compared to those of globular ones; stars in open clusters are spread farther apart and are thus not as strongly bound to each other by gravity, causing them to be more easily and quickly drawn away by stronger gravitational forces. As a result, Messier 11 is likely to disperse in a few million years as its members are ejected one by one, pulled away by other celestial objects in the vicinity. For more information, follow the link in our bio. Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, P. Dobbie et al. Text credit: European Space Agency (ESA) #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #messier #11 #starcluster #star #wildduckcluster

nasahubble

This Hubble image reveals the gradual destruction of an asteroid, whose ejected dusty material has formed two long, thin, comet-like tails. The longer tail stretches more than 500,000 miles and is roughly 3,000 miles wide. The shorter tail is about a quarter as long. The streamers will eventually disperse into space. These unusual, transient features are evidence that the asteroid, known as (6478) Gault, is beginning to come apart by gently puffing off material in two separate episodes. Hubble's sharp view reveals that the tails are narrow streamers, suggesting that the dust was released in short bursts, lasting anywhere from a few hours to a few days. The first tail was spotted on Jan. 5, 2019; the second in mid-January. An analysis of both tails suggests the two dust releases occurred around Oct. 28 and Dec. 30, 2018. Astronomers think the tiny asteroid, only 2.5 miles wide, is disintegrating due to the long-term subtle effects of sunlight, which can slowly speed up its spin until it begins to shed material. In fact, the self-destruction may have been started more than 100 million years ago. Pressure from sunlight very slowly began spinning up the diminutive asteroid at an estimated rate of 1 second every 10,000 years. The asteroid is located 214 million miles from the Sun, between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. For more information, follow the link in our bio. Credits: NASA, ESA, K. Meech and J. Kleyna (University of Hawaii), and O. Hainaut (European Southern Observatory) #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #asteroid #tail #dust

nasahubble

#HubbleClassic The mighty gravitational field of a massive cluster of galaxies known as Abell 2218 bends time and space, warping the light from galaxies behind the cluster. Curved arcs of light are the distorted apparitions of background galaxies billions of light-years away. For more information on Hubble, follow the link in our bio. Credits: NASA, Andrew Fruchter and the ERO Team [Sylvia Baggett (STScI), Richard Hook (ST-ECF), Zoltan Levay (STScI)] (STScI) #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #gravity #cluster #lensing #galaxy #lightyears

nasahubble

#HubbleFriday This fuzzy orb of light is a giant elliptical galaxy filled with an incredible 200 billion stars. Unlike spiral galaxies, which have a well-defined structure and boast picturesque spiral arms, elliptical galaxies appear fairly smooth and featureless. This is likely why this galaxy, named Messier 49 (M49), was discovered by French astronomer Charles Messier in 1771. At a distance of 56 million light-years and measuring 157,000 light-years across, M49 was the first member of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies to be discovered, and it is more luminous than any other galaxy at its distance or nearer. Elliptical galaxies tend to contain a larger portion of older stars than spiral galaxies and also lack young, blue stars. Messier 49 itself is very yellow, which indicates that the stars within it are mostly older and redder than the Sun. In fact, the last major episode of star formation within the galaxy was about six billion years ago — before the Sun was even born! Messier 49 is also rich in globular star clusters; it hosts about 6,000 — a number that dwarfs the 150 found in and around the Milky Way. On average, these clusters are 10 billion years old. Messier 49 is also known to host a supermassive black hole at its center with the mass of more than 500 million Suns, identifiable by the X-rays pouring out from the heart of the galaxy. For more information, follow the link in our bio. Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, J. Blakenslee, P. Cote et al. Text credit: European Space Agency (ESA) #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #galaxy #stars #messier #virgo #blackhole

nasahubble

#HubbleClassic In 1998, Hubble captured this colorful view of Saturn in infrared light, providing information about clouds and hazes in the planet's atmosphere. The blue colors indicate a clear atmosphere down to the main cloud layer. Most of the northern hemisphere that is visible above the rings is relatively clear. The dark region around the south pole indicates a big hole in the main cloud layer. The green and yellow colors indicate a haze above the main cloud layer. The red and orange colors indicate clouds reaching up high into the atmosphere. The rings, made up of chunks of ice, are as white as images taken in visible light. Two of Saturn's moons were captured: Dione in the lower left and Tethys in the upper right. Tethys is just ending its transit across the disk of Saturn. Credit: Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona), and NASA #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #saturn #color #planet #atmosphere #moons #clouds

nasahubble

This Hubble picture shows Messier 28, a globular cluster in the constellation of Sagittarius (the Archer), in jewel-bright detail. It is about 18,000 light-years away from Earth. As its name suggests, this cluster belongs to the Messier catalog of objects — however, when astronomer Charles Messier first added Messier 28 to his list in 1764, he cataloged it incorrectly, referring to it as a “[round] nebula containing no star.” While today we know nebulas to be vast, often glowing clouds of interstellar dust and ionized gases, until the early 20th century a nebula represented any astronomical object that was not clearly localized and isolated. Any unidentified hazy light source could be called a nebula. In fact, all 110 of the astronomical objects identified by Messier were combined under the title of the Catalogue of Nebulae and Star Clusters. He classified many objects as diverse as star clusters and supernova remnants as nebulas. This includes Messier 28, pictured here — which, ironically, is actually a star cluster. Messier’s mistake is understandable. While Messier 28 is easily recognizable as a globular stellar cluster in this image, it is far less recognizable from Earth. Even with binoculars it is only visible very faintly, as the distorting effects of Earth’s atmosphere reduce this luminous ancient cluster to a barely visible smudge in the sky. One would need larger telescopes to resolve single stars in Messier 28. Fortunately, from space Hubble allows Messier 28 to be seen in all its beauty — far more than a faint, shapeless, nebulous cloud. Messier 28 is included in Hubble’s Messier catalog, a collection of Hubble images taken of celestial objects from Charles Messier’s catalog. For more information, follow the link in our bio. Text credit: ESA (European Space Agency) Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, J.E. Grindlay et al. #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #HubbleFriday

nasahubble

Happy #PiDay! March 14th represented in numbers is 3.14, which is the first three digits in pi, a mathematical constant used to define the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter. Hubble observes circular objects every day, like this galaxy. Image Credit:  ESA/Hubble & NASA, Acknowledgement: Judy Schmidt #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #Galaxy

NASAHubble

#HubbleClassic This view of the Hubble Space Telescope, set against the blue-and-white backdrop of Earth, was captured by astronauts on the space shuttle after they'd finished upgrading the telescope during Servicing Mission 3B, which concluded #OTD in 2002. Credit: NASA #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos

NASAHubble

#HubbleFriday Located in the constellation of Hercules, about 230 million light-years away, NGC 6052 is a pair of colliding galaxies. They were first discovered in 1784 by William Herschel and were originally classified as a single irregular galaxy because of their odd shape. However, we now know that NGC 6052 actually consists of two galaxies that are in the process of colliding. This particular image of NGC 6052 was taken using the Wide Field Camera 3 on Hubble. A long time ago gravity drew the two galaxies together into the chaotic state we now observe. Stars from within both of the original galaxies now follow new trajectories caused by the new gravitational effects. However, actual collisions between stars themselves are very rare as stars are very small relative to the distances between them (most of a galaxy is empty space). Eventually the galaxies will fully merge to form a single, stable galaxy. Our own galaxy, the Milky Way, will undergo a similar collision in the future with our nearest galactic neighbor, the Andromeda galaxy. However, this is not expected to happen for around 4 billion years. For more information, follow the link in our bio. Text credit: ESA (European Space Agency) Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, A. Adamo et al. #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #hercules #galaxies #colliding #gravity #Friday

NASAHubble

We live in a gigantic star city. Our Milky Way galaxy contains an estimated 200 billion stars. But that's just the bare tip of the iceberg. The Milky Way is surrounded by vast amounts of an unknown material called dark matter that is invisible because it doesn't release any radiation. Astronomers know it exists because, dynamically, the galaxy would fly apart if dark matter didn't keep a gravitational lid on things. Still, astronomers would like to have a precise measure of the galaxy's mass to better understand how the myriad galaxies throughout the universe form and evolve. Other galaxies can range in mass from around a billion solar masses to 30 trillion solar masses. How does our Milky Way compare? Curious astronomers teamed up Hubble and European Space Agency's Gaia satellite to precisely study the motions of globular star clusters that orbit our galaxy like bees around a hive. The faster the clusters move under the entire galaxy's gravitational pull, the more massive it is. The researchers concluded the galaxy weighs 1.5 trillion solar masses, most of it locked up in dark matter. Therefore, the Milky Way is a "Goldilocks" galaxy, not too big and not too small. Just right! For more information, follow the link in our bio. Credits- Artwork: NASA, ESA, and A. Feild (STScI) Science: NASA, ESA, and L. Watkins (ESO) #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #milkyway #galaxy #stars #darkmatter #gravity #gaia #esa

NASAHubble

#HubbleClassic This photo captures astronauts working on Hubble #OTD in 2002, during the 2nd spacewalk of Hubble's 4th servicing mission, with the curved, blue glow of Earth's atmosphere in the background. Credit: NASA #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #servicing #SM3B #earth #astronaut